MIL-OSI Translation: Research: disability, professional inequalities and employment policies

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MIL OSI Translation. Government of the Republic of France statements from French to English –

Source: Universities – Science Po in French

What professional inequalities do people with disabilities face? Are there any statistics on the subject?

Like any categorization, the process of statistical categorization of a “disabled population” runs the risk of essentializing disability, by treating it as a fixed attribute of people. This approach is, however, necessary to measure concrete inequalities linked to disability. With this aim of measuring inequalities, we call here “disabled people” (as opposed to “able-bodied people”) people meeting a certain statistical definition, while being aware of the limits of this approach and the porosity of these categories. Several statistical criteria exist to delimit a disabled population, and they do not completely overlap. We use the global activity limitation indicator (Global Activity Limitation Indicator or GALI), which covers all people declaring to be “limited, for at least six months, due to a health problem, in activities that people usually do”. This indicator is integrated into most INSEE household surveys, notably the Continuous Employment Survey (EEC).

According to this survey, in 2021, 15% of 15-64 year olds were affected, or 6 million people. Their employment rate was 51%, compared to 70% for able-bodied people, and their unemployment rate was 13% (compared to 8%). 471,000 disabled people belonged to the unemployment halo, i.e. unemployed people wanting to work but not being available within two weeks or actively looking for work. This corresponds to 8% of disabled people aged 15-64 (where only 4% of able-bodied people are in this halo). Disabled people work more often part-time: in 2021 this was the case for more than a third of disabled women (compared to a quarter of able-bodied women) and 14% of disabled men (compared to 7% of able-bodied men). They occupy on average less qualified positions: 55% of workers and employees (44% in the able-bodied population), and only 15% of managers, higher intellectual professions or business leaders (24% in the able-bodied population). Their working conditions are often difficult, in particular due to employers’ failure to make adjustments that may be necessary (e.g. technical adjustments to the workstation, adjustment of schedules, etc.) (Lejeune, 2019). These people more generally suffer from workplaces that remain generally not inclusive, both materially (accessibility) and symbolically (stigma).

In parallel with these data concerning individuals living in households (according to the definition of INSEE), we must not forget the situation of disabled people living in institutions: in 2014 according to the ES-Handicap survey, of the 150,400 residents of specialized institutions, only 25.6% were in paid work, at more 97% in the protected environment (see below).

The broad definitions of disability used by household surveys also include heterogeneous groups in terms of types, degrees and times of onset of disability. Experienced professional inequalities vary according to these parameters. The latest data available on this point dates from 2011. The time of onset of the disability matters. In 2011, 13% of disabled people (among those aged 15-64) were disabled from birth, a third before the end of studies, the remaining 54% having experienced a later onset of disability. However, almost 9% of people disabled since birth and 6% of people disabled since school have not held any regular job after their schooling or studies, meaning a lack of insurance rights – a much rarer case in the disabled population. later (3%) and the able-bodied population (4%).

The disadvantages encountered in access to employment and in employment also vary according to the types and degrees of limitations. In 2011, the unemployment rate for people aged 15-64 who had completed their initial studies was on average 8% for the able-bodied population and 15% for people who grew up with a disability; but, among the latter, it could rise up to 22% in the case of severe cognitive limitations, 23% in the case of severe visual limitations and 26% in the case of severe psychological disorders (Bouchet, 2021a). Inequalities in working conditions also vary in magnitude. Disabled people generally have much lower work income than able-bodied people: 1 in 5 people (19.4%) who grew up with a disability receive less than €10,000 per year in work income, compared to one in 9 ( 11.2%) for able-bodied people. This proportion rises to 38.7% for people with severe cognitive limitations, and 29.6% for people with severe psychological disorders. Disability is therefore strongly synonymous with poverty, and social policies play a vital role in this context for many.

Disability also interacts with other social relationships in the distribution of positions on the labor market. The professional paths of disabled people are subject to gendered mechanisms classically studied in sociology. The arrival of children in the household has differentiated effects to the disadvantage of women (reduction in paid work, or even complete cessation) (Boudinet and Revillard, 2022). Part-time rates are much higher for disabled women (37%) than for disabled men (14%). Finally, the phenomena of horizontal and vertical segregation according to gender structure the employment of people with disabilities: women with disabilities, like able-bodied women, are much more likely to be employed (one in two disabled women compared to 13% of disabled men in 2021 according to the EEC), and men to be workers (38% of disabled men compared to 11% of disabled women). Access to the most valued professions also varies by gender: 17% of disabled men (27% of able-bodied men) were managers, higher intellectual professions or business leaders, compared to 13% of disabled women (21% of able-bodied women). ).

Likewise, disabled people from advantaged origins can count less on social reproduction linked to class: among employed people, in 2021, according to the EEC, while 48% of able-bodied people whose at least one parent was manager, higher intellectual profession or business manager occupied a similar position, this proportion is only 35% among the disabled population.

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and/or sentence structure not be perfect.

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