MIL-OSI Translation: Answering questions from reporters at the press conference of “China’s Comprehensive Well-off” White Paper

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MIL OSI Translation. Region: Peoples Republic of China-China Statistical Information Network-Chinese-

(September 28, 2021)

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   Bloomberg News reporter: How big is the gap between rich and poor now? How will the country control and narrow the gap between the rich and the poor? Will taxation policies play a big role?

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   Ning Jizhe, member of the Party Leadership Group and Deputy Director of the National Development and Reform Commission and Secretary of the Party Leadership Group and Director of the National Bureau of Statistics: This is a very important issue. It can be said that the process of building a moderately prosperous society in my country in an all-round way is a process of declining poverty and a process of increasing prosperity of the people. Since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, my country’s economic strength has continued to rise, the people’s living standards have been improved in an all-round way, and the income distribution pattern of residents has gradually improved. Although there is a gap between the rich and the poor, the income gap between urban and rural, regional and different groups of residents tends to narrow overall.

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   First, the income gap between urban and rural residents has continued to narrow. With the country’s poverty alleviation and the deepening of agricultural and rural reform and development, the income of rural residents has grown significantly faster than that of urban residents, and the relative income gap between urban and rural residents has continued to narrow. In terms of income growth, from 2011 to 2020, the average annual per capita disposable income of rural residents increased by 10.6% in nominal terms, and the average annual growth rate was 1.8 percentage points faster than that of urban residents. From the perspective of the income ratio of urban and rural residents, the ratio of per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents has decreased year by year, from 2.99 in 2010 to 2.56 in 2020, a cumulative decrease of 0.43. In 2020, the ratio of per capita disposable income of urban and rural residents will decrease by 0.08 compared with 2019. , Is the year with the fastest decline since the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China.

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   The second is that the income gap between residents in different regions is decreasing year by year. Under the influence of the regional coordinated development strategy and the implementation of major regional strategies, the regional income gap has narrowed as the regional development gap narrowed. From 2011 to 2020, the relative gap in the per capita disposable income of residents between the highest-income provinces and the lowest-income provinces decreased year by year. The income ratio decreased from 4.62 in 2011 (the ratio of incomes between Shanghai and Tibet residents) to 3.55 (the incomes of Shanghai and Gansu residents) in 2020. The ratio) is the lowest level since the beginning of the new century. In 2020, the income ratios of the eastern and western regions, the central and western regions, and the northeastern and western regions were 1.62, 1.07, and 1.11, respectively, down 0.08, 0.03, and 0.18 from 2013.

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   Third, the income gap between residents of different groups has narrowed overall. The Gini coefficient is a commonly used indicator to measure the income gap of residents. The Gini coefficient is usually calculated by household income and consumption expenditure. The World Bank has calculated both of these indicators. Calculated on the basis of residents’ income, my country’s Gini coefficient has fluctuated and declined in the past ten years. After the national per capita disposable income Gini coefficient reached its highest point of 0.491 in 2008, it has shown a trend of volatility and decline since 2009. It will fall to 0.468 in 2020, a cumulative decrease of 0.023. At the same time, the adjustment of residents’ income distribution is increasing. During the “Thirteenth Five-Year Plan” period, the nation’s per capita net income from transfers increased by 10.1% annually, faster than the growth of the overall income of residents. It should also be noted that in the World Bank database, the Gini coefficient of China’s consumption in 2016 was 0.385, which is 0.080 lower than the Gini coefficient of income of the year of 0.465, and the consumption data more directly reflects the actual living standards of residents.

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   Fourth, the equalization of basic public services has accelerated. To look at the income of residents, we must not only look at the disposable income of the family, but also look at the public services provided by the government to improve people’s livelihood. In the process of building a well-off society in an all-round way, all regions and departments have actively promoted the equalization of basic public services. The improvement of the multi-level social security system has achieved remarkable results. At present, my country has established the world’s largest social security network, with basic medical insurance covering more than 1.35 billion people and basic old-age insurance covering more than 1 billion people. The construction of the housing security and supply system is progressing steadily. The country has built a total of more than 80 million sets of various types of affordable housing and resettlement housing, helping more than 200 million people in need to improve their housing conditions. The fairness and quality of education continue to improve, and the consolidation rate of nine-year compulsory education in 2020 is 95.2%. Basic medical and public health services have been improved. In 2020, the general public budget health expenditure will be 1.92 trillion yuan. The people’s income through their own labor, business income, and income from transfer payments are increasing. At the same time, some income does not enter the family, but is provided to the general public through public services. In this regard, in a socialist country with Chinese characteristics like ours, various departments and regions have done a lot of work.

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   During the “14th Five-Year Plan” period, to further control and narrow the gap between the rich and the poor, we must not only make a big pie, but also divide the pie. We must insist that development is the top priority, and increase residents’ income through economic development, hard work, and expansion of employment. At the same time, insist on distribution according to work as the main body and coexistence of multiple distribution methods, increase the proportion of labor remuneration in the primary distribution, improve the reasonable wage growth mechanism, focus on increasing the income of low-income groups, and expand middle-income groups; improve the distribution policy system based on factors , Increase the element income of low- and middle-income groups; improve the redistribution mechanism, increase the adjustment and accuracy of taxation, social security, and transfer payments; play the role of the third distribution to develop charity; build the initial distribution, redistribution, and three times The basic institutional arrangements for distribution, coordination, and support will promote social fairness and justice, promote the all-round development of people, and enable all people to make solid progress toward the goal of common prosperity.

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   You just mentioned taxation. Taxation has already played an important role in income distribution. From now on, whether it is in the first distribution, redistribution, or three distributions, the role of tax leverage must be played well. thanks.

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   CNBC reporter: What are the shortcomings in the development of China’s first-tier cities? For example, in terms of pension and social security, what are the future development directions and priorities of first-tier cities?

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Ning Jizhe: Since the reform and opening up, first-tier cities such as Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Guangzhou and other megacities have experienced substantial economic growth, a significant increase in population, continuous opening up, and vigorous development of social undertakings. They have become an important engine for China’s economic growth. An important open hub and an important support for national governance have increasingly become an important space carrier for people to live, work, and enjoy a better life. At the same time, these cities also have “urban diseases” that are common in countries around the world, such as traffic congestion, high housing prices, and limited development. These are all problems in development, difficulties in progress, and troubles in growth. As for social security for the elderly, the overall level of the first-tier cities is not bad, and the average life expectancy of several first-tier cities is above 80 years old, ranking among the best in all kinds of cities. What needs to be improved is to control costs and improve services. The “14th Five-Year Plan” outlines the planning and deployment of improving the spatial layout of urbanization and optimizing and upgrading the functions of the central urban areas of super-large cities. The following points are included.

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   One is to promote the high-quality and sustainable development of mega-cities. It is necessary to make overall plans and take into account the diverse needs of economy, life, ecology, and safety, promote the transformation of development and construction methods of super-large cities, and strengthen the prevention and control of urban governance risks. Persist in building people’s cities and building people’s cities for the people, deeply grasp the laws of urban development, coordinate development and safety, and effectively promote the transformation of urban development from scale expansion to connotation enhancement, pay more attention to people’s livelihood, steadily improve social security levels, and upgrade urban governance modernization levels , Making cities healthier, safer and more livable. At the same time, we will further strengthen the central radiation role of super-large cities, continuously optimize the spatial pattern of economic development, achieve coordinated regional development, and better promote rural revitalization and promote the integrated development of urban and rural areas.

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   The second is to reasonably reduce the development intensity and population density of mega-cities. It is necessary to scientifically plan urban production, living, and ecological spaces, orderly dissolve functions and facilities such as general manufacturing, regional logistics bases, and professional markets in the central city, as well as excessively concentrated public resources, and strengthen risk prevention and control in urban governance. For example, Beijing will be based on the functional positioning of the national political center, cultural center, international exchange center, and scientific and technological innovation center, and build a harmonious, livable, and beautiful capital of a major country. At the same time, focusing on the deconstruction of non-capital functions, we will promote the coordinated development of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei to a higher level, strengthen air quality monitoring and joint prevention and control in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and surrounding areas, and use Beijing’s technological innovation advantages to drive the transformation and upgrading of traditional industries in Tianjin and Hebei. Enhance the radiating and leading role of surrounding areas.

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   The third is to optimize and enhance the core competitiveness of mega cities. Enhance global resource allocation, scientific and technological innovation sources, and high-end industry leading functions, take the lead in forming an industrial structure with modern service industries as the mainstay and advanced manufacturing as the support, and enhance comprehensive energy levels and international competitiveness. For example, Shanghai will enhance the city’s energy level and core competitiveness, play a leading role in the Yangtze River Delta region, and continue to lead by strengthening the global resource allocation, scientific and technological innovation strategy, high-end industry leadership, and opening up the “four major functions” of the hub portal. Promote the leap of the “five centers” of international economy, finance, trade, shipping and technological innovation, provide services for the high-quality development of the Yangtze River Delta and participate in international competition, and lead the integrated development of the Yangtze River Delta. In another example, Shenzhen will take the construction of a pioneering demonstration zone of socialism with Chinese characteristics as a guide, build a comprehensive national science center, accelerate the promotion of major cooperation platforms between Guangdong and Hong Kong such as Qianhai and Hetao, and take the lead in the connection of rules and mechanisms in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. First try, give full play to Shenzhen’s core engine role in the construction of the Greater Bay Area, and radiate to drive the rapid development of surrounding areas. Guangzhou will also play an important role in the construction of the Greater Bay Area, including perfecting the Guangzhou-Shenzhen-Hong Kong and Guangzhou-Zhuhai-Macao Science and Technology Innovation Corridor. thanks.

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   Nippon Television Network reporter: In the context of China’s accelerated growth of declining birthrate and aging population, some sources pointed out that it may also have an impact on China’s future economic development. Under such circumstances, can China continue to maintain a well-off society in an all-round way?

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   Ning Jizhe: Since the beginning of the new century, China’s population and structure have undergone some new changes. The seventh national census conducted in 2020 has fully investigated the number, structure, and distribution of my country’s population, and the results have been announced. Although the growth rate of my country’s total population has slowed down, the total fertility rate has declined, and the degree of aging has deepened, on the whole, the demographic dividend still exists, the advantage of the talent dividend is coming later, and the population health level continues to improve. With the gradual improvement of the population policy, my country’s economic development has been improving for a long time. On the basis of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, building a modern socialist country in an all-round way still has a good guarantee of human resources.

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   First, labor resources are still abundant, and the demographic dividend continues to exist. my country is still the most populous country in the world, the total population is still growing, and the total working-age population is still huge. Our country has a working age population of 880 million people aged 16-59, and more than 300 million women of childbearing age, which can maintain a population of more than 10 million every year. In 2020, the total number of migrant workers in my country will still reach 286 million. The dividends generated by population growth still exist, and labor resources are still relatively abundant, providing demographic dividend support for sustained economic development.

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   The second is that the quality of the population has improved significantly, and new advantages of talent dividends have gradually emerged. In the past ten years, the education level of our population has increased significantly. In 2020, the average number of years of education for the 16-59 working age population in my country will reach 10.75 years, an increase of 1.08 years from 9.67 in 2010. Education has developed greatly in the past ten years. Among them, 208 million people have a college education level or above, accounting for 23.61% of the working-age population, which is 11.27 percentage points higher than that in 2010. The proportion of talent scale has risen by more than 10%, nearly doubled. This is conducive to accelerating the transformation of my country’s economic development mode, optimizing and upgrading the industrial structure, and continuously improving total factor productivity, and providing new talent bonus support for high-quality economic development.

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   Third, the health level of residents has been greatly improved, and the conditions of labor resources have been optimized. Health is both well-being and productivity. With the reform and development of medical and health services, the physical quality of our population has improved significantly. In 2019, the life expectancy of the Chinese population reached 77.3 years, 2.47 years higher than in 2010, and this increase is also very large. The physical condition of middle-aged and elderly people has improved overall. Although many people have reached old age, their physical fitness is still quite good. In 2020, my country’s infant mortality rate and maternal mortality rate will also drop to 5.4‰ and 16.9/100,000, respectively. The physical fitness of the population at both ends has improved. The health level of Chinese residents is generally better than the average level of middle- and high-income countries, and the achievements in health care have also provided effective labor input support for the sustainable development of the economy. The same is the labor force, and the physical health is improved, which is conducive to the role of labor resources.

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  Fourth is the increase in the number and proportion of the child population, and the new generation of labor resources is growing. Since the implementation of the “two-child alone” and “two-child comprehensive” policy, the number of births in my country has clearly rebounded. According to the seventh national census, the number of children aged 0-14 has increased by 30.92 million over 2010, and the proportion has risen by 1.35 percentage points. The “second-child” fertility rate has increased significantly, and the proportion of the “second-child” in the birth population has risen from about 30% in 2013 to about 50% in 2017. The implementation of the three-child policy and supporting measures this year will help promote the increase in the birth population, improve the age structure of the population, and achieve long-term balanced population development. thanks.

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   China Daily reporter: China is the world’s second largest economy and one of the main engines driving the world’s economic development. Last year, China became the only major economy in the world that achieved positive economic growth. The current momentum of world economic recovery is not very stable. Under such a background, what does it mean for the world to build a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way in China? What new development opportunities will it bring to the world economy?

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   Ning Jizhe: China’s comprehensive completion of a well-off society means that the world’s most populous country and the world’s largest developing country have economic prosperity and people’s livelihood improvement. This in itself is a huge contribution to world peace and development. At the same time, China’s comprehensive construction of a moderately prosperous society has also provided impetus and opportunities for the recovery of the world economy, and contributed Chinese wisdom and strength to the building of a community with a shared future for mankind. China cannot do without the world, and the world cannot do without China.

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   First of all, China has built a well-off society in an all-round way and made outstanding contributions to the cause of global poverty reduction. Since the reform and opening up, 770 million rural poor people in China have been lifted out of poverty, accounting for more than 70% of the global poverty reduction population in the same period. Absolute poverty has been eliminated in 2020, and the United Nations 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development has been achieved 10 years ahead of schedule. China’s poverty reduction goal, more than 1.4 billion Chinese people embark on a new journey of building a socialist modern country in an all-round way. This is an unprecedented major change and event in human history. In recent years, under the background that the world’s poor population has not decreased but increased, and the global poverty reduction has encountered bottlenecks, China’s achievements in poverty reduction have significantly reduced the world’s poor population and injected confidence and strength into the global poverty reduction.

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  Second, China has built a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, providing a driving force for the growth and recovery of the world economy. Since 2006, my country has been the largest contributor to world economic growth for 15 consecutive years, with an average contribution rate of more than 30% to world economic growth for many years, and has become the main engine of world economic growth. In 2020, my country’s GDP will exceed 100 trillion yuan. This is to overcome the impact of the new crown pneumonia epidemic and become the only major economy in the world to achieve positive growth. In the first half of this year, China’s economy grew by 12.7% year-on-year, which not only became an important force driving the recovery of the global economy and trade, but also played a positive role in maintaining the stability of the global supply system. For more than a year, China has supplied hundreds of billions of masks and more than one billion doses of vaccines to the world, which has strongly supported the development of anti-epidemic in various countries.

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   Third, China has built a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, which has brought tremendous opportunities for the prosperity and development of the world economy. At present, China has become the world’s second largest consumer market and the largest trading country in goods, and it ranks among the top in the world in the use of foreign capital and foreign investment. As we accelerate the construction of a new development pattern with the domestic big cycle as the main body and the domestic and international double cycles mutually promoting each other, the potential of the Chinese market will burst out day by day. More powerful opportunities for cooperation and broader development space. According to estimates, in the next five years, China’s imports of goods from other countries and regions in the world will exceed 10 trillion U.S. dollars, and its direct investment in other countries and regions will exceed 550 billion U.S. dollars. This will surely provide a strong foundation for the stable recovery and sustainable development of the global economy. power.

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   Finally, China has built a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, opening up new ways for developing countries to modernize. After more than 70 years of construction and development in New China, especially more than 40 years of reform and opening up, China’s economy has gone from being poor and white to second in total. The Chinese people’s life has gone from insufficient food and clothing to comprehensive well-off, ushered in the rise from standing, getting rich to becoming stronger. Great leap. In the process of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way, we have created two miracles of rapid economic development and long-term social stability. This has not only brought tangible benefits to the Chinese people, but also greatly improved the level of development of human society. Since 2019, my country’s per capita GDP has exceeded 10,000 U.S. dollars, which has increased the total population of economies with a per capita GDP of more than 10,000 U.S. dollars by 1.4 billion people, close to 3 billion, and nearly doubled. This is undoubtedly a human being. The great gospel of social development. China’s vivid practice of building a moderately prosperous society in an all-round way has provided new choices for countries and nations in the world who want to accelerate their development and maintain their independence. thanks.

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EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and/or sentence structure not be perfect.

MIL Translation OSI