MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
We look at the portraits of the Governor-General of St. Petersburg Mikhail Miloradovich from the collection of the Borodino battle panorama museum and get acquainted with the history of his life, in which there was a place for exploits, love, and poetry.
On December 26 (December 14, old style), 1825, an uprising took place on Senate Square, which will later go down in history as the Decembrist uprising. A group of conspirators, officers-nobles, tried to prevent the accession to the throne of Nicholas I. The rebels advocated the abolition of autocracy and serfdom. By nightfall, the riot was suppressed, and hundreds of victims remained on Senate Square.
The first victim of the uprising was the Governor-General of St. Petersburg Mikhail Miloradovich, who tried to calm the rioters. The hero of the Patriotic War of 1812, who did not receive a single wound on the battlefields, was struck by the bullet of Peter Kakhovsky. Stories from the life of Mikhail Miloradovich – in a joint article by mos.ru and the Mosgortur agency.
Ward of Alexander Suvorov
In the 1760s, Mikhail Miloradovich’s father served under the command of the legendary commander Alexander Suvorov. They were connected not only by professional, but also by friendly relations. This is confirmed by one of the letters that Suvorov sent to Miloradovich Sr. in October 1773: “My dear Sovereign Andrei Stepanovich. When I leave, I love you! Do not forget me. I thank Your Excellency for your gracious friendship. ” Many years later, Alexander Vasilyevich took patronage over the son of a friend.
There is a legend according to which the legendary commander said when he saw little Mikhail Andreevich: “Miloradovich will be a glorious general.” The prediction came true. Under the command of Suvorov, he took part in the famous Italian and Swiss campaigns. He won one of his main victories during the Russian-Turkish war of 1806-1812. In 1809, the corps he commanded took over the Ottoman army in the Battle of Rasevatsky, for which Miloradovich received the rank of general from infantry.
Character of historical anecdotes
Mikhail Miloradovich, like many other famous Russian generals, is the character of an endless set of historical anecdotes.
One of them tells about an episode that allegedly occurred during the passage of the Russian army across the Alps. In that campaign, Miloradovich commanded an advanced detachment. Having reached the top of one of the mountains, the soldiers stood in front of an almost steep slope and began to wonder how they could overcome it. Then General Miloradovich told the soldiers: “Here’s how!” – fell over on his back and rolled in the snow. All the soldiers followed his example. At the foot of the mountain, the Russian military was awaited by the enemy, who immediately opened fire. However, Miloradovich’s detachment, like an avalanche, crushed the enemy.
Another story refers to a certain nameless battle in which the soldiers of Count Miloradovich could not take the enemy battery. Then, in order to inspire his soldiers, Mikhail Andreevich threw a bunch of St. George’s crosses at the enemy’s position and shouted: “Gather!” After that, the soldiers rushed into another attack and finally took the battery. Those who survived left the collected insignia for themselves.
Another anecdote reveals the theme of Mikhail Miloradovich’s attitude to spending. In 1814, in Paris, after the capture of the city, the count was in dire need of money. Then he asked Alexander I to give him a salary for three years in advance. The emperor fulfilled the general’s request – and Mikhail Miloradovich managed to spend all this money even before leaving the French capital.
After the Patriotic War of 1812, when young Russian officers returned to their homeland, secret political societies began to appear in the country. Among those who took an active part in their meetings was one of the general’s close associates – his adjutant in the army and the ruler of the office in the civil service Fyodor Glinka.
In 1813, after graduating from the First Cadet Corps, 27-year-old ensign Fyodor Nikolayevich arrived to serve in the Absheron Infantry Regiment, which was led by Mikhail Andreyevich.
“We were introduced to the general after his dinner,” Glinka recalled. “He lay in his uniform wide open and smoked his pipe … Looking at us, young officers, and seeing that we were all frail in height, Miloradovich smiled playfully, not sardonically (he could flare up, get angry, but did not know how to sarcastically) and said:“ Well , My God! (his favorite saying) now we only need war! War! And there are warriors! “
Six years later, having gone through many battles under the command of Miloradovich, Fyodor Glinka became his adjutant.
In 1816, Colonel Glinka joined the Union of Salvation, and then, when it disintegrated, into the Union of Welfare. Unlike other members of these societies, he was moderate. By the way, the famous meeting of the members of the Union of Welfare, held in January 1820, at which they chose the form of government for Russia, was held at Fyodor Nikolaevich’s apartment. Almost all those who gathered then voted for the republic, only Glinka spoke in favor of preserving the monarchy. After the collapse of the Union of Welfare, he refused to join the Northern Society and completely retired from secret political affairs.
After the defeat of the rebels in 1825, interrogations and arrests of members of secret societies began. Fyodor Glinka did not escape this fate either. He was detained on March 11, 1826 and placed in the Peter and Paul Fortress. On June 15, 1826, he was sent into exile in Petrozavodsk and dismissed from military service, and in 1830 he was transferred to Tver, where he lived until his death. The former adjutant of Miloradovich died in 1880 at the age of 93.
Savior of Pushkin
In 1820, because of poems that criticized the authorities, Alexander Pushkin came to the attention of the supervisory authorities. The threat of exile hung over the poet – Alexander I himself wanted to send him to Siberia. Mikhail Miloradovich, who in those years served as the military governor-general of St. Petersburg, came to the aid of the rebellious poet.
In the spring of 1820, Alexander Sergeevich was summoned to the Governor-General. Until this moment, Pushkin and Miloradovich knew about each other’s existence, appeared at the same events, but did not know each other personally. Before visiting Mikhail Andreevich, Pushkin asked Fyodor Glinka for advice. He reassured him: “Go and rely unconditionally on the nobility of his soul: he will not use your trust for evil.”
In the office of the Governor-General, Pushkin learned that a search would be carried out in his apartment, and admitted that he had burned all his poems. After that, the poet asked for a pen and paper and restored all his works in a few hours. Miloradovich was amazed. He shook hands with the poet and sent him home.
The next day, the general went to an audience with Alexander I. Despite the fact that the decision had not yet been made, Miloradovich went for a trick, noting that he himself had forgiven the freethinker on behalf of the emperor. The man frowned: “Isn’t it early?” However, a little later, softening, he added: “Well, if this is so, then we will order otherwise: equip Pushkin on the road, give him passes and, with the appropriate rank and with the observance of possible plausibility, send him to serve in the south.”
In May 1820, Pushkin left St. Petersburg and went to the Caucasus, and in 1824 he returned home. This period of the poet’s life is known as the southern exile, although in fact, thanks to Miloradovich, it was just an official translation.
Mikhail Miloradovich was never married, but was known for numerous novels (there is a legend that after the death of the count they found a chest full of love messages from fans). While working as president of the Russian Theater Committee, he met the ballerina Ekaterina Teleshova. The young beauty (she was 33 years younger than him) became the last love of the Governor-General. Passion for her made Miloradovich a rival of the writer and diplomat Alexander Griboyedov.
Griboyedov first saw Yekaterina Teleshova in 1824 as the Magician on the stage of the St. Petersburg Bolshoi Theater in the ballet Ruslan and Lyudmila. Alexander Sergeevich was struck and, under the impression of the production, wrote a poem “Teleshova” with the subtitle: “In the ballet Ruslan and Lyudmila, where she appears to seduce the prince”:
Why do you beckon with a gentle hand?
Why do you draw from distant lands
Your inevitable captive alien,
To suffering incurable wounds?
A little later they were introduced to each other at an evening with Prince Alexander Shakhovsky. In a letter to his friend Stepan Begichev dated January 4, 1825, Griboyedov said: “At three, four evenings Teleshova drove me crazy, and it was all the easier that for the first time, I myself got used to the feeling that made me blacker in my sinful life coal burned out. And what was tempting for me was that my rival was Miloradovich, stupid, boastful, the idol of Shakhovsky, who is imitating him. Both brutes! “
An interesting reason why Griboyedov called the rivalry with Mikhail Andreevich “tempting”. In 1824, Alexander Sergeevich coordinated with the censors his play “Woe from Wit” and one of the people who made the decision to publish the work was Mikhail Miloradovich. For several months Griboyedov went to the Special Chancellery of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, but each time he received more and more new changes. In parallel with the printed version of Woe from Wit, Griboyedov also prepared his stage production, but it also suffered from censorship – it was banned personally by Miloradovich in 1825 (there were rumors that because of Teleshova).
The ballerina reciprocated Griboyedov, but their romance did not last long – in May 1825, Alexander Sergeevich left for the Caucasus, and Yekaterina Alexandrovna returned to Miloradovich. On December 26, 1825, the news of the outbreak of the rebellion found the general literally on the threshold of Teleshova’s apartment. From there, he immediately went to Senate Square.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure not be perfect.