Post sponsored by NewzEngine.com

MIL OSI Translation. Region: Peoples Republic of China-China Statistical Information Network-Chinese-

National Bureau of Statistics   December 2020

To

  In order to promote the all-round development and healthy growth of children, my country promulgated and implemented the “China Children’s Development Program (2011-2020)” (hereinafter referred to as the “Program”) in 2011. In order to fully reflect the implementation process of the “Outline”, the National Bureau of Statistics conducted a comprehensive analysis of the implementation of the “Outline” in the five areas of health, education, welfare, environment and legal protection in 2019 based on statistical data and materials from relevant departments. It shows that the implementation of the “Outline” is progressing smoothly. Most of the indicators have achieved their goals ahead of schedule, but there are still gaps in a few indicators. The protection of children’s rights in related fields still needs to be strengthened.

To

   1. The implementation of the “Outline” in various fields

To

   (1) Children and health.

To

   1. Children’s health has improved significantly. Since 2010, my country’s child health service system covering urban and rural areas has been further improved, the capacity of children’s medical and health care services has been continuously strengthened, the level of children’s health has been significantly improved, and the child mortality rate has continued to decline (see Figure 1). In 2019, the infant mortality rate and the mortality rate of children under 5 years old were 5.6‰ and 7.8‰, respectively, which were 0.5 and 0.6 per thousand points lower than the previous year, and were significantly lower than the targets of 10‰ and 13‰ in the Outline. The injury mortality rate of children under the age of 18 was 11.42 per 100,000, a decrease of 2.7% from the previous year and a decrease of 49% from 2010. The rate of decrease was significantly higher than the target of the “Outline” of “decreasing by 1/6 based on 2010.”

To

Figure 1 Infant mortality rate and mortality rate of children under 5 years old from 2010 to 2019

To

To

  2. The developmental status of children is constantly improving. In 2019, my country will further promote early childhood development, advocate breastfeeding, and strengthen interventions on child health risk factors to ensure the healthy growth of children in my country. In 2019, the national incidence of low birth weight among children was 3.24%, which is well within the target of the “Outline” of “below 4%”. The prevalence of anemia and low body weight in children under 5 were 5.38% and 1.37% respectively, which were both a decrease of 0.06 percentage points from the previous year. The growth retardation rate of children under 5 was 1.12%, which was slightly higher than the previous year by 0.01 percentage points. The prevalence of anemia, underweight and growth retardation rates in children under the age of 12 are far better than the targets of the “Outline” of “below 12%”, “below 7%” and “under 5%”.

To

   3. The effect of prevention and treatment of childhood diseases is remarkable. In recent years, my country has gradually established a four-level immunization planning monitoring and management system covering the country, province, city, and county, as well as a three-level immunization service network at county, township and village levels. Collaboration platform docking. In 2019, the coverage rate of all kinds of vaccines included in the national immunization program[1] for school-age children exceeded 97%. The national systematic management rate for children under 3 years old was 91.9%, and the health management rate for children under 7 years old was 93.6%, an increase of 0.7 and 0.9 percentage points respectively over the previous year.

To

   (2) Children and Education.

To

   1. Preschool education has been further valued and strengthened. In 2019, my country will continue to promote the implementation of the third preschool education action plan in counties, vigorously develop public parks, actively support inclusive private parks, and carry out the governance of supporting kindergartens in urban communities. Inclusive preschool education resources have rapidly increased. In 2019, there were 281,000 kindergartens nationwide (see Figure 2), of which 108,000 were public kindergartens and 173,000 were private kindergartens, an increase of 5.4%, 7%, and 4.5% respectively over the previous year. There were 4.916 million kindergarten faculty members and 2.763 million full-time teachers nationwide, an increase of 8.5% and 7% respectively over the previous year. Preschool education (including kindergartens and attached kindergartens) had 47.139 million children in kindergartens, an increase of 1.2% over the previous year. The gross enrollment rate of preschool education nationwide was 83.4%, an increase of 1.7 percentage points over the previous year, which was far higher than the target of “70%” in the “Outline”.

To

Figure 2   Number of kindergartens and preschool education gross enrollment rate from 2010 to 2019

To

To

   2. Compulsory education is fully universalized. In 2019, the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council issued the “Opinions on Deepening Education and Teaching Reform and Comprehensively Improving the Quality of Compulsory Education”, which further promoted the reform and development of my country’s compulsory education. In 2019, there were 213,000 compulsory education schools across the country[2], including 160,000 general primary schools and 52,000 junior high schools. There were 10.017 million full-time teachers across the country, including 6.269 million in ordinary primary schools and 3.747 million in junior high schools, an increase of 2.9%, 2.9% and 3% respectively over the previous year. There are 154 million students in school across the country, including 106 million in ordinary primary schools and 48 million in junior high schools, an increase of 2.6%, 2.1% and 3.8% respectively over the previous year. Among the students in the compulsory education stage, 14.27 million children of migrant workers who migrated to the city were accompanied by children, accounting for 9.3% of the students, an increase of 1.6 percentage points over 2010. The national nine-year compulsory education consolidation rate reached 94.8%, an increase of 0.6 percentage points over the previous year, and the “Outline” goal of “reaching 95%” was basically achieved (see Figure 3). The net enrollment rate of primary school-age children is 99.94%, and the gross enrollment rate of junior high school is 102.6% [3].

To

Figure 3   2010-2019 nine-year compulsory education consolidation rate

To

To

   3. The scale of high school education continues to expand. In recent years, with the in-depth implementation of the “High School Education Popularization Plan (2017-2020)”, the achievements of compulsory education popularization have been continuously consolidated, and the gross enrollment rate of senior high schools has continued to increase. In 2019, there were 24,375 high school education schools nationwide, an increase of 55 or 0.2% over the previous year. The nationwide enrollment was 14.399 million and the number of students in school was 39.949 million, an increase of 6.7% and 1.5% respectively over the previous year. The gross enrollment rate of senior high schools across the country reached 89.5%, an increase of 0.7 percentage points from the previous year, and it is further close to the goal of “reaching 90%” in the Outline (see Figure 4).

To

Figure 4   2010-2019 gross enrollment rate of high school

To

To

   4. The development of special education has accelerated significantly. Since the implementation of the second special education promotion plan (2017-2020), the education level of the disabled in my country has been further improved, which has promoted educational equity and improved the welfare of the disabled. In 2019, there were 2,192 special education schools nationwide with 62,000 full-time teachers, an increase of 40 and 4 million over the previous year, an increase of 1.9% and 6.3%. Enrollment of various forms of special education students [4] is 144,000, with 795,000 students in school, an increase of 16.8% and 19.3% respectively over the previous year, and an increase of 5.4 and 4.2 percentage points over the previous year; the national compulsory education stage special education in schools The number of students was 779,000, an increase of 12.4% over the previous year.

To

   (3) Children and welfare.

To

  1. The number of child welfare and rescue and protection agencies has increased steadily. In 2019, 10 departments including the Ministry of Civil Affairs and the Ministry of Education jointly issued the “Opinions on Further Improving the Care and Service System for Left-behind Children and Children in Difficulties in Rural Areas”, which clarified the functional positioning and regional layout of minor rescue and protection centers and child welfare institutions, which is powerful Promoted the development of my country’s child welfare protection work. As of the end of 2019, there were 686 child welfare and rescue and protection institutions nationwide (see Figure 5), an increase of 35 over the previous year; the institutions had a total of 99,000 beds. Among them, there were 484 child welfare institutions with 90,000 beds; 202 minor rescue and protection centers with 8,000 beds. A total of 18,000 vagrant and beggar minors were rescued throughout the year.

To

Figure 5   Children’s welfare and rescue and protection agencies (units) in 2019

To

To

   2. The quality of life of orphans continues to improve. In 2019, my country further increased the level of protection for orphans, the central government subsidized the basic living expenses of orphans by 50%, and the quality of life of orphans has been significantly improved. With the development of my country’s economy and society and the continuous improvement of the level of social security, the phenomenon of abandoning children has been greatly reduced, and the number of orphans in my country has continued to decrease for seven consecutive years. As of the end of 2019, there were 233,000 orphans nationwide, a decrease of 72,000 or 23.6% from the previous year. Among them, the number of intensively raised orphans and social scattered orphans were 64,000 and 169,000, respectively, and the average monthly basic living allowance per person was 1499.2 yuan and 1073.5 yuan, respectively. Among the scattered orphans in the society, 13,000 were adopted by their families, accounting for 5.6% of the total number of orphans, an increase of 0.3% over the previous year. The good wish of orphans to return to their families has been further realized.

To

   3. The ability of professional rehabilitation services for disabled children has been steadily improved. In 2019, my country launched the “Catalog of Basic Rehabilitation Services for Children with Disabilities from 0 to 6 Years Old (2019 Edition)”, which has further improved the supply capacity and guarantee level of basic rehabilitation services for disabled children. As of the end of 2019, there were 9,775 disabled rehabilitation institutions nationwide that carried out rehabilitation of disabled children, an increase of 739 or 8.2% over the previous year (see Figure 6). A total of 181,000 disabled children between the ages of 0 and 6 received basic rehabilitation services, an increase of 24,000 or 15.4% over the previous year, accounting for 1.74% of persons with disabilities receiving basic rehabilitation services, an increase of 0.28 percentage points over the previous year.

To

Figure 6   Rehabilitation institutions for disabled children from 2011 to 2019

To

To

   (4) Children and the environment.

To

   1. Children’s living environment is improving day by day. With the continuous advancement of my country’s ecological civilization construction, the efficiency of ecological environment governance has been further improved, providing a good environmental guarantee for the healthy growth of children. In 2019, the per capita park area in cities across the country was 14.4 square meters, an increase of 0.3 square meters over the previous year. The green coverage rate, urban sewage treatment rate, and harmless treatment rate of municipal solid waste in urban built-up areas were 41.5%, 96.8% and 99.2%, respectively, an increase of 0.4, 1.3, and 0.2 percentage points over the previous year. The proportion of people benefiting from centralized water supply in rural areas reached 87%, an increase of 1 percentage point over the previous year.

To

   2. Children’s social environment continues to be optimized. In recent years, the importance of the community environment to the survival, development and protection of children has become more prominent. As of the end of 2019, there were 289,000 children’s homes (or children’s centers) nationwide, an increase of 62,000 over the previous year, an increase of 27.1%, and the coverage of urban and rural communities has further improved. There were 252,000 community service centers (stations), an increase of 76,000 over the previous year, an increase of 43.1%. There were 61,000 professional social workers holding certificates in grassroots organizations, an increase of 14,000 over the previous year, an increase of 29.4% (see Figure 7).

To

Figure 7   Professional social workers who hold certificates from 2010 to 2019

To

To

   3. Children’s cultural products and venues for activities are more abundant. In recent years, children’s access to culture, art and entertainment experience has become more diverse, and the cultural products and services that they can obtain have become more abundant. In 2019, 44,000 books for children at junior high school and below were published, totaling 950 million copies, and 206 types of periodicals for children at junior high school and below, totaling 380 million copies were published. There are 130 million children’s literature in 3196 public libraries nationwide, an increase of 14.5% over the previous year. The broadcast time of national children’s radio programs, children’s TV programs, and TV animation programs were 26.66, 57.4, and 399,000 hours, respectively, an increase of 0.2%, 0.1% and 6.5% over the previous year (see Figure 8). Minors nationwide visited museums and science and technology museums to 286.53 million and 18.74 million respectively[5].

To

Figure 8   The broadcast time of children’s radio programs, children’s TV programs, and TV animation programs from 2011 to 2019

To

To

   (5) Children and legal protection.

To

   1. The system of laws, regulations and policies for the protection of children’s rights and interests has been further improved. In 2019, my country advanced the revision and improvement of the Law on the Protection of Minors and the Law on the Prevention of Juvenile Delinquency, and issued relevant opinions on improving the care and service system for left-behind children and children in difficulties in rural areas, and strengthening the protection of unsupported children in fact. Relevant management regulations have been issued in areas such as safety, nutrition and health, and programs for minors, which have further improved the laws, regulations and policy systems that protect the legitimate rights and interests of children in my country.

To

   2. The legitimate rights and interests of children are further protected. In order to effectively protect the legitimate rights and interests of children, my country has continued to increase its efforts to combat the crime of abduction and trafficking of children, and the phenomenon of abduction and trafficking of children has been significantly reduced. In 2019, 413 child trafficking cases were cracked across the country, a 45.4% decrease from 2015. In the past three years, the child missing information emergency release platform released nearly 4,000 missing children information and recovered more than 3,900 children, with a recovery rate of over 98%.

To

   3. Children’s legal aid capabilities have been further improved. In the process of protecting disadvantaged groups and building a harmonious socialist society, my country has actively carried out legal assistance to minors. In 2019, minors across the country received assistance from legal institutions totaling 138,000, accounting for 6.9% of the number of aid recipients, an increase of 50,000 or 57.1% from 2010. Women’s federations at or above the county level have provided more than 200,000 letters and visits and hotline consultations for women and children.

To

   4. The proportion of juvenile crime continues to decrease. In recent years, my country has continuously increased its efforts to control juvenile delinquency, and the proportion of juvenile delinquents has continued to decline (see Figure 9). In 2019, the number of juvenile offenders nationwide was 43,000, a decrease of 25,000 compared with 2010, a decrease of 36.9%. The number of juvenile delinquents accounted for 2.59% of the number of delinquents in the same period, a 4.19 percentage point decrease from 2010.

To

Figure 9 The proportion of juvenile offenders from 2010 to 2019

To

   2. The main problems in the implementation of the “Outline”

To

   (1) The health level of children in urban and rural areas is still unbalanced.

To

   Since 2010, the health of children in my country has improved significantly, but the imbalance between urban and rural areas still exists. In 2019, the urban infant mortality rate and the under-5 mortality rate were 3.4‰ and 4.1‰, respectively, which were 2.4 and 3.2 thousand points lower than in 2010; the rural infant mortality rate and the under-5 mortality rate were 6.6‰ respectively And 9.4‰, respectively 9.5 and 10.7 thousand points lower than in 2010. However, judging from the urban-rural ratio, the infant mortality rate and the under-5 mortality rate are 1:1.94 and 1:2.29, respectively, showing that the rural infant mortality rate and the under-five mortality rate are significantly higher than those in the cities (see Figure 10).

To

Figure 10   Infant mortality rate in urban and rural areas and under 5 mortality rate in 2010 and 2019

To

To

  

(2) Vocational education still needs to be strengthened vigorously.

To

In 2019, the State Council issued the “National Vocational Education Reform Implementation Plan” (hereinafter referred to as the “Implementation Plan”), further emphasizing that vocational education and general education have the same important status, and proposed the development of secondary vocational education as popularizing high school education and building vocational education with Chinese characteristics. An important foundation of the education system. However, judging from the scale of my country’s secondary vocational education[6], 15.765 million students were enrolled in school in 2019, a decrease of 29.6% and 4.8% respectively compared with 2010 and 2015. From the perspective of the senior high school education occupation ratio [7], the ratio in 2019 was 0.65:1, which was a decline compared with 2010 (0.92:1) and 2015 (0.7:1). It is different from the “Implementation Plan”. There is still a certain gap in the goal of maintaining a roughly equivalent ratio of high school education occupations.

To

Note:

[1] The vaccines included in the national immunization program in this article include BCG, polio vaccine, DPT vaccine, measles vaccine, hepatitis B vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, Japanese encephalitis vaccine and meningococcal vaccine.

  [2] Due to rounding of the total or relative data in this article, calculation errors may occur.

  [3] According to the calculation method of the gross enrollment rate of junior high school, since the numerator (12-14 years old) includes non-school-age students, the gross enrollment rate may exceed 100%.

  [4] Including special education schools, attached special education classes, regular classes and home delivery students.

[5] In order to improve the scientific quality of citizens, since 2015, science and technology museums with ownership or use rights at all levels of science and technology associations have been promoting free visits year by year. Because some science and technology museums do not have the ability to collect statistical data by age, this indicator is incomplete Statistics and historical data are not comparable.

  [6] Secondary vocational education includes general technical secondary school, adult technical secondary school, vocational high school and technical school.

  [7] The general ratio of this post refers to the ratio of the number of students in secondary vocational education to the number of students in ordinary high schools.

To

EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and/or sentence structure not be perfect.

MIL Translation OSI