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Source: US Congressional Budget Office

S. 4157 would require the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) to create a computer model to simulate the cascading consequences of a pandemic on critical infrastructure such as hospitals and manufacturing supply chains. The bill also would require CISA to report to the Congress and other federal entities on the results of those simulations.

On the basis of information from CISA about the costs to create similar simulations and satisfy reporting requirements, CBO estimates that implementing S. 4157 would cost $1 million over the 2020-2025 period; such spending would be subject to the availability of appropriations. For this estimate, CBO assumes that the legislation will be enacted near the start of fiscal year 2021.