MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russia –
Source: Russia Federal Space
# RSC Energia # History 03/23/2020 17: 37 March 2001, the flight of the Mir orbital complex was completed The Mir orbital complex was the first international space science laboratory created by the cooperation of space and rocket industry enterprises with the leading role of NPO Energia (today – RSC Energia, part of the Roscosmos State Corporation). The unique operation to bring more than 130 tons of large-sized design out of orbit was carried out for the first time in the world with filigree accuracy. During 15 years of operation, 104 people from 12 countries of the world worked in the station: USA, France, Syria, Afghanistan, Bulgaria, Japan, Great Britain, Germany, Kazakhstan, Austria, Canada and Slovakia. At the station, 31,200 experiment sessions were implemented as part of 55 national programs in various areas of applied research and experimentation. 78 spacewalks were accomplished. This was facilitated by the fundamental principles laid down by NPO Energia at the design stage: modular construction, maintainability at all levels, the highest adaptability to changes in the flight program, the versatility of the intended use, flight safety of the crew, and an efficient transport and technical support system . The experience of long-term expeditions at Mir station was extremely valuable when the International Space Station, the lead organization in R the Russian segment of which is RSC Energia. An interaction scheme has been worked out when implementing joint programs with future partners under the ISS program (USA, France, Germany, countries – members of the European Space Agency). At Mir station, in real conditions, many technical solutions, work methods, and technological processes accepted for use on the ISS were checked, including the modular principle of constructing large-size and mass space structures in orbit (up to 240 tons). The Mir complex showed the effectiveness of the use of Soyuz and Progress, Space Shuttle-type spacecraft as vehicles for the delivery of crews and logistics of the ISS. The Mir complex worked out the interaction of international crews on long flights and the technology of maintaining a complex orbital structure in working condition, gained experience in dealing with emergency situations, ensuring crew safety and survivability of the station, and conducting several international scientific programs by the integrated crew. During the Mira flight, the technology of joint control of manned space objects of two countries from two Control Centers was developed: MCC-M (Korolev, Russia) and MCC-X (Houston, USA).
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation from Russian Language to English.