MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
Faina Rublev — about the latest technologies, donated meteorites, favorite constellations, and on the anniversary of the planetarium.
5 Nov 1929 in Moscow, opened the first in the country and the 13th planetarium in the world. This event Vladimir Mayakovsky dedicated a rapturous poem “Proletarian, proletarian, go to the planetarium”. And Konstantin Paustovsky inspired the creators of planetarium on the development of a unique “living the sky” under the dome, asking why the stars don’t twinkle. Shimmer local stars later admired all of the first Soviet cosmonauts, and many prominent scientists once engaged in astronomical circles of the Moscow planetarium.
In 2019, the planetarium celebrates its 90th anniversary. About what he went through the ordeal and won in less than a century mos.ru and the Agency “Moscow” said Faina Borisovna Rubleva, scientific Director of the planetarium.
“We can offer something not found anywhere else”
This year the planetarium marks a solid anniversary. How you plan to celebrate?
— 90 years is a significant date. You can count on your fingers planetariums of the world, which marked this anniversary. Above us only planetariums in Berlin, Vienna, Jena and Munich. But the scale of the Universe 90 years is a moment, and we hope that the Moscow planetarium is still to come.
To celebrate widely and fun. There will be festive events, and the program for our visitors that are in a magical tale. Importantly, the premiere of our fulldome film “Colorful universe”. And we have built it on their own, having mastered the rather complex modern technology.
— As the planetarium manages to hold the attention of visitors in the digital age?
— We can offer something not found anywhere else. Digital technology today is everywhere, but see the starry sky and feel it in full measure is possible only in planetariums.
We remain interesting, because always offer something new, expanding the list of its offerings, targeting different levels of knowledge, interests and age.
For example, we have a series of lectures “Tribune of the scientists.” These people come to talk with scientists who talk about such discoveries, which are still not even really there are no publications. Where else may get the chance?
For children from five years, we have a project “Theatre of captivating science” is the interactive sessions that introduce you to the world around them in a playful way. For older children we have a “School fun science”. We offer different tours — educational, private, themed, scenic, educational.
Today at the planetarium runs a 4D cinema. What kind of movies you can watch? They are specially designed for your cinema?
— We have a 5D-cinema, because there is another option — dynamic chairs. In the cinema, creates effects of rain, snow and temperature rise.
We ourselves are not yet produced and do not order movies that are purchased that already exists on the market. Updated Billboard about once a year. Now we can see two pictures: “the Little Prince” and “Flying over Moscow”. The latter is not related to the theme of the planetarium, but stunningly beautiful shows Moscow — every time you fall in love with her again. When I bring guests, for example from other countries, I am watch it again.
“The exploration of space direct relationship we have, indirectly of course”
— In the prewar years in the planetarium there was the star theatre. Is there today a place of art?
— The planetarium was three theatres. The first — pre-war, in which staged performances of “Giordano Bruno”, “Nicolaus Copernicus”, “Galileo Galilei”. In the performances was attended by professional actors.
In 1954 he started to work Planetary art theatre of variety and miniatures, which was attended by mostly employees. It was plays by his own script. In the 1970s he ceased to exist, because the enthusiasts are gone, and the next generation as it is not picked up.
In 1989, it was a Fantastic theatre — young actors and Directors were looking for new forms. It existed until 1994.
Today we are holding a jazz and Symphony concerts, for several years we prepare a new year’s performances for children. This year will be an interesting show “new year adventures of toys”, where will be involved the starry sky. This is no longer anywhere. The planetarium is a unique stage space.
— In the history of the planetarium is the intersection with the history of space exploration. And today you interact with the space sector?
In the 1930s, the planetarium has provided the platform for the Stratospheric Committee, later here was done by members of the Group studying jet propulsion. The meetings were attended by Sergei Korolev, Friedrich Zander, Georgy Langemak, and many other famous people. It was the first attempt of rocketry.
Volunteer scientists were engaged in development, organized meetings, led controversy and debate. It was not that secret, but this one never spoke.
And since 1960, here were trained the first group of cosmonauts, which were Yuri Gagarin, Gherman Titov and others. In the planetarium they studied the navigational stars. Then there were the navigators, as it is now, and needed a trainer. And this trainer was the planetarium. Classes were held under a signature stamp “confidentially”.
The lectures were conducted by the staff of the planetarium, but they didn’t know who listens to them. Only after Gagarin’s flight all figured out who these people were. Since 1960, all the astronauts we have had such training for 15 years and then in Star city built his planetarium.
Today space exploration is a direct relationship we do not have, indirectly of course. We show films about space exploration, tell about it and invite astronauts to the meeting.
“We’ve learned that in the Museum exhibits you can’t touch”
— You started work in a planetarium as a tour guide. The way he was then?
— I came to work in the planetarium at the astronomical site tour 40 years ago. It was an amazing place: green lawn, on which were flower beds, blooming Apple trees, lindens, fruited Irga. We had a very interesting tour of the site of an astronomical, Observatory, instruments, instruments, the sundial absolutely unique exhibits that cannot be seen somewhere else. Then I became a lecturer, then head of up the career ladder.
— In 1994 for the planetarium began a difficult period of 17 years. What did the staff to opened after reconstruction?
In 1994 the planetarium was closed for reconstruction, which of course was necessary, because since the overhaul never happened, equipment was outdated — needed to be updated, we are very much behind in this respect. Coincidentally, and in the country if there were very serious changes that exacerbated our situation — were planning to close for a year, and stood for 17 years.
The first time we have conducted educational activities — conducted guest lectures in schools, libraries, proceedings of Moscow, Moscow region and other regions. But the years went by, and the staff left someone for another job, someone to retire. In the end left two people: me and my teacher, Stanislav V. Shirokov. Unfortunately, he’s gone, he died a year before the opening of the planetarium.
The building has implemented an ambitious project in the area increased five times under the planetarium has a lot of extra place — now a Museum.
The old astronomical site built building-podium interactive Museum, and a roof placed pad, made by new technology, the number of devices and models has increased, now there are two observatories.
— How does the planetarium now?
Today it is a multifunctional complex. Big star hall, two-level Museum of Urania and interactive Museum “Lunarium”, which can be called more of a space for experimentation. We’ve learned that in the Museum exhibits you can’t touch — interactive museums all the way around.
In addition to the 4D cinema, there are Small star hall is also equipped with dynamic seats. It is designed for small groups, mainly for children. There you can see the film “city of the Sun” we have created.
And of course, our beautiful astronomical site with a collection of sundials, models of Stonehenge, the pyramids of Cheops reproduced quadrant Tycho Brahe, a modern radio telescope.
“Great interest is, of course, meteorites”
— The heart of the planetarium is a device that projects stars on the dome. How it works, what are its characteristics?
The first projector was installed in 1929 — opto-mechanical, the second, too, opto-mechanical, electronic control systems, in 1977. Today in the Big star hall has installed the most advanced fiber-optic projector “Universarium M9”.
Was originally a one star ball, which showed only stars of the Northern celestial hemisphere. Later created a second model of the apparatus “Planetarium” — ducherow, he showed the stars of the Northern and southern hemispheres. Only the dome screen could be seen 6500 stars to 6.5 magnitude — as much as we are able to see on a real starry sky with the naked eye.
In the projector of the “Universarium M9” is applied to the fiber optic technology now to each star in a star mask is applied to the optical fiber, and the stars get a point, like a real sky.
— What modern technologies are used in a planetarium?
— In addition to the “Universarium”, we have installed full-dome digital system with 14 projectors, stereo surround sound, providing a good sound during our programs and allows to organize concerts. On our sites applied modern Museum, multimedia and digital technology. We try to keep up with the times, and we do.
— What are the exhibits in the Museum Urania is worth paying attention to? As they come to you?
In the Urania Museum, you can see the first and second apparatus “Planetarium”. More nowhere, at least in our country. The exhibits related to the history of the planetarium, the real artifacts.
Of great interest is, of course, meteorites. They have all the real — something we give, something we buy, something in the rental charge.
“Since I am with a starry sky for many years, love all of him”
Expected in the near future significant astronomical events that could be watching you?
— We always conduct observations of such phenomena, if weather conditions permit. Soon a very interesting event — the passage of mercury over the solar disk, it will be November 11. If the weather is favorable, can be organized by observation.
If, for example, there is an Eclipse of the moon, we, of course, is an observation value. It is interesting to observe Mars during opposition, when it is very bright, very red.
— Do you often look in the telescope? Have a favorite star or constellation?
— When it is possible to observe on our site, do it with great pleasure. At home I have a small Amateur telescope, and together with the family we observed, for example, the moon. I tell you, there are some craters do we see just does not come off.
Look at the starry sky as a whole through a telescope interesting: increasing the object of observation, it narrows the field of view. In a telescope it is interesting to consider any single object, such as the Andromeda galaxy, the star cluster Pleiades or one of the planets, but the comet is best seen with the naked eye, because it is clear and the nucleus, and a huge tail, then that makes a huge impression.
Since I am with a starry sky for many years, I love him entirely. When I find myself under a starry sky, I feel joy. I understand what wealth what incredible world we see — if we lived on Venus, we would never have seen any one star because of the very dense atmosphere.
No wonder the Roman philosopher Lucius Seneca said: “If on Earth there was only one place where you could see the stars, the crowds flocked there to behold the wonders of the sky and admire them”.
— After 10 years, the planetarium will celebrate its centenary. There are great projects that you started planning for this date already?
— Of course, we want the planetarium was developed, not behind the times. I think the next 10 years will be dedicated to modernization, renovation and development of what we now begin to develop, I mean the Fulldome technology. We now have a small Studio, doing a few people. I think that in the next decade, we need to strengthen that area, to not buy movies, and create their own.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure will not be perfect.