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Source: US Congressional Budget Office

H.R. 565 would allow qualified Portuguese nationals to be admitted into the United States as nonimmigrant (temporary) traders or investors in E-1 or E-2 classification. E-1 and E-2 nonimmigrants, and their spouses and children, are admitted to the United States for up to two years. They can extend their stay indefinitely if they continue to meet the eligibility requirements.

Using data from the Department of State about E­‑1 and E-2 nonimmigrants from other European countries, CBO expects that under H.R. 565, up to 500 Portuguese nationals would be in the United States as E-1 or E-2 nonimmigrants at any time.

Applicants for E-1 or E-2 nonimmigrant visas pay a fee to the Department of State, of which $3 is remitted to the Treasury and recorded as a revenue. (The rest of the fee is available to the Department of State to spend.) While in the United States, E-1 and E-2 nonimmigrants are eligible for health-insurance subsidies if they otherwise qualify. Depending on how the subsidy is paid, it is recorded either as an increase in direct spending or as a decrease in revenue. Because of the small number of people affected, CBO estimates that the net effect on the deficit would be insignificant in each year and over the 2020-2029 period.