MIL OSI Translation. Region: Russian Federation –
About four generations of artists from the plow, which supported the Communist party of Yugoslavia and the Paris museums, and the success of which led to the decline.
The Museum of Russian folk and naïve art opened the exhibition “Generalic and his army. Four generations Chlebinska school” from the collection of Vladimir Temkin. Chlebinska school gave the world the pleiad of artists-primitivists, uses a unique painting technique. The phenomenon of the Croatian naive, its short history and today’s life of one of its last representatives — in joint material mos.ru and the Agency “Moscow”.
The first meeting with Naiv
Vladimir Temkin — hardly probable not unique in Russia, the collector of the Croatian naive. He does not hide his collection in his native Nerekhta, and willingly shows it. His collection was exhibited in Kostroma, Yekaterinburg, Yaroslavl, Mytishchi and finally reached Moscow.
In Soviet times, Vladimir Temkin worked as a graphic designer. In the 2000s, in his hands was the album of the works of the Patriarch of the Croatian naive Ivana Generalica. “The paintings remained in my memory,” he says.
Once in Croatia, he immediately went to see them live. The Croatian Museum of naïve art in Zagreb, which opened in 1952 as a Peasant art gallery, by the way, is considered the world’s first Museum of naive. Initial interest grew into a serious hobby for several years, Temkin was able to meet with many artists naivite, to visit their workshops and learn the Croatian language.
“Now my wife and I go to Croatia two times a year. It’s vacation, and a creative trip, especially over the past two years I had five exhibition projects, dedicated to the Croatian naive. After each breed artists catalogs, tell how it went, as they took pictures of the Russian public. I had wondered where they get these colors? But once I started driving in Croatia was to see them. I fell at sunset on the autumn red forest of Generalica. Even me wife says: “Look at Generalic yours.” A naïve artist comes up with nothing, maybe a little embellishing,” says the collector, the exhibition curator Vladimir Temkin.
What is Chlebinska school naive
The mastermind behind Chlebinska school became a professional painter Krsto of Hegedusic. After the Zagreb Academy of fine arts, in 1926-1928 he was in the vortex of artistic life in Paris. There Hegedusich met the art critic and collector Wilhelm Ude, which has glorified for the whole world the first naive painter Henri Rousseau, as well as organized the first exhibition of naive art, so-called “painters of the sacred heart”. Hegedusich was familiar with Russian neoprimitivism Mikhail Larionov and Natalia Goncharova, who also lived in Paris. Returning Home, he started searching in this direction.
The Yugoslav intelligentsia was fond of walking in the people in search of nuggets in the field of literature, music, painting. Hegedusich father was a native of the village podrevskogo Hlebine. One day, going to hlevinsky shop, he saw pictures on the wrapping paper. Was so found a 15-year-old generalić.
“When Haibara was opened by Henri Rousseau, he was already established artist. So, our avant-garde found Niko Pirosmani. Hegedusich taught generalica of paint, showed how to write on glass, and that the rest of your life called him Professor. Hegedusich wanted to prove that talent does not depend on the origin, and managed to do it. “We’ve caught God by the beard,” he said. Hegedusich he studied drawing and with the other peasants. The first generation Chlebinska school made three — generalić, Mirko Virius and Frania chill. Virus perished in a Nazi concentration camp in 1943, the filth, and after the war went along party lines and was unable to return in naive art, even though I tried. And Generali became the engine that made the Croatian naive to the world”, — said Vladimir Temkin.
Old icons and mirror technique
In the Croatian naive is not only interesting stories, the manner and paint, but complicated technique — reverse painting on glass. The artist paints on the reverse side of glass from small parts to larger, and ends in the background.
“Looking at the reproduction, at first I did not understand that this is a painting on the reverse side of the glass. Thought it had something drawn on the outside or closed by glass. It turns out, no! It in the usual painting you put the canvas on the easel, did the underpainting, painted background, details and finish some small glare. Not much — copied. Here you have to start with the highlights and have to move, move, move, move, prescribing in layers with drying of each layer. To correct some mistake is impossible, you draw, starting from the front end. But it’s not academic artists, and the mistakes it only in plus. You see, Generalica musician was left-handed?”, — said Vladimir Temkin.
This painting dates back to the folk icons on glass, which were cheap and therefore were widespread in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. You can find them from southern Germany to Western Ukraine in Austria, Serbia, Slovenia, Bulgaria, Romania. In Croatia they are called glare (glaži) or in the German style — Malerei (from the German hinterglasmalerei — painting on the reverse side of glass).
“Each artist has his own method. Someone puts next to schematic drawing and writes, while referring to him. Loudly Sigetec always draws sketches the size of a postcard, it’s enough. But there were ones like Nada Snegovic. She wrote in one sitting, wet on wet without waiting for drying of the previous layer. It is no coincidence that it was called “podravski Bruegel”. With Nada was a difficult fate. She have been looking for myself. Success for her began to come in the 1980s, but soon the war began. Interest in it waned, and the artist, it is important that his work was in demand. Then a new breakdown — the husband died without leaving her children. Gamma of her work became blacker and blacker. I managed to meet her, visited her at the hotel, greeting each other sent. Two works from the series “the Entertainers” bought after the death of Nada her brother. One of them was hanging in her house must be like a talisman,” — says Vladimir Temkin.
The rise and fall of the Croatian naive
With the opening of the Zagreb Peasant art galleries and the stunning success of the personal exhibition of Ivan Generalich in Paris in 1953 flourished Chlebinska school. In the 1960s on Yugoslav naive talking critics around the world.
Second, the post-war generation of peasant-artists from Hlebine and neighboring villages were grouped around Generaliza — Dolenec Franjo, Franjo Filipovic, Dragan the Drywall, Ivan Vecini, Mijo Kovacic, Martin Mihcak, Josip Generalic, the son of Ivan.
Peasant art supported the New Communist party of Yugoslavia. In the USSR, their shows took and the Hermitage Museum and Russian Museum and the Pushkin Museum Pushkin.
“Mijo Kovacic a couple of times he went on foot from his village to Generalize. We’ve been friends, he’s the only one still alive from the second generation. Millau told me: “I Heard that there is such. Came to his village. Want, speak, draw, show. Generalic replies: “Well, look.” That I could show? He is a farmer, I’m a farmer. One man, another boy. I did not understand. I even had no idea that there are artistic paint. The brush was also homemade”. I think such a phenomenon could occur anywhere, not only in Croatia. We also have crafts Kholui, Palekh, Fedoskino. Any talented people. All the artists of the first generation Chlebinska school was not easy without special education in the first and second generations from all four classes of primary school. Even in the 1960s, with the advent of popularity, with no village connection did not break, they all have the farm. In the third generation was already about 200 artists, and this overabundance broke the back of the naive. Each gallery in the West wanted to have their work in the 1970s-1980s in the radius of 50 kilometers from Hlebine painted probably every farmer. Commercialization was not in vain, the level could not fall. And the breakup of Yugoslavia and war did the rest,” says Mr Temkin.
The last of chlebina
One of the halls of the exhibition entirely dedicated to the work of Dragana of Titeca, who was born in 1972. Vladimir Temkin associates with him is a real friendship. Tetes, which belongs to the fourth generation Chlebinska school, collaborated with Josip, son of Ivan Generalich.
In Russia it never was, but keenly interested in how make it work. Dragen Tetec lives alone and engaged in their apiary. He 180 hives, so from early spring to autumn it all the time occupied by bees, and in the winter he paints. Vladimir Temkin hopes that his interest in Tetetzo supports the artist.
About the paintings of his friend, their stories and encrypted in them the symbols and meanings of the collector can talk endlessly.
“Remember how in the gospel Jesus tells the Apostle Peter that he would deny him thrice before the cock crows? If I may say so, the picture “Peter the rooster” Drazen wrote at my request. I love the creativity of Brusilovsky Misha Shaevich, a famous artist of the sixties from Yekaterinburg. He has a series of “Peter and the rooster”, 30 or 40 works. I told them about Draganu, and this is what came of it.
In the Croatian naive figure of a rooster balancing on the threshold of night and day, light and darkness, of the metaphysical, it comes from Generalica. The second most powerful symbol is the river Drava. The painting “the Vortex on the Drava” — a reference to the real tragedy that happened in September 1953. Then stormy Drava sucked into the vortex of 14 farmers who went to harvest the cane. They commemorated still allowed lights and wreaths on the water. The painting “the Sellers of the mist” Tereza — a satire on fellow artists who boast of how the fishermen. Pour: “Yes, I’m here in France they sold.” And their pictures-what you see is some kind of crane, pig. When the painting was exhibited at the annual exhibition in Hlebine, they came, looked and realized: “Drazen, and you have painted that!” And in the “Looking for someone” dragen drew a picture of himself — in this rural Diogenes with a magnifying glass and candle,” — says Vladimir Temkin.
To see a miracle
Today, the collection of Vladimir Temkin about 100 works of Croatian naivists. None of them he did not sell and is not going — he sees his mission to acquaint more people with Chlebinska school, or “the miracle of Croatian naive”, as he says. Systemically Croatian naive in Russia, but he collects and shows no.
“In Russia, to the naive art, some skepticism. In the West, now everyone is running around with the outsiders, it is a trend, and the Croatian peasants for them is archaic. But no one did much to naive art, as Chlebinska school. Rousseau and Pirosmani was alone, and here — the whole phenomenon of four generations of artists. If one Mijo Kovacic had more than 150 solo exhibitions, what to say? What is an academic painter is so? But he’s still alive, thank God,” concludes Mr Temkin.
EDITOR’S NOTE: This article is a translation. Apologies should the grammar and or sentence structure will not be perfect.